A nosocomial infection is defined as any infection occurring in a patient during hospital stay or receiving any healthcare facility in which the infection was not present at the time of hospital admission or acquired during hospitalisation. Malhotra S et al research findings reflected the prevalence of hospital acquired infections was highest in ICUs (33.3%) followed by paediatric wards (12.5%) and surgical wards (10.3%). The most common hospital acquired infections were urinary tract infection (UTI 31.1%) followed by respiratory tract infections (RTI- 24.3%), surgical site infection (SSI- 20.3%) and blood stream infection (BSI- 18.2%).According to Mythri H and Kashinath KR et al the mean duration of stay of the patients in the hospital was 8.1 days. The distribution of nosocomial infections in MICU were UTI (34.8% - 8/130), pneumonia (21.7% - 5/130), soft tissue infections (17.4% - 4/130), gastrointestinal (13.0% - 3/130), blood stream infections (8.7% - 2/130) and meningitis (4.3% - 1/130). According to Sugata Dasgupta research study the outcome of this research study concluded there was no statistically significant difference between the hospital mortality rates among the patients with and without nosocomial infection (P = 0.181).According to Oznur Ak research study the incidence rate of nosocomial infection was 21.6 in 1000 patient-days, and the rate of nosocomial infection was 25.6% Length of ICU stay, central venous catheterisation, mechanical ventilation and tracheostomy were statistically significant risk factors for nosocomial infection. According to Michael Behnke research study concludes that the prevalence of nosocomial infection has not changed since 1994, but the prevalence of antibiotic use has increased in hospital acquired infections.
by Riya Johnson | Alex Lalbiaknunga | Jaidev Kumar | Sumana | Abdul Rashid
Published in International Journal of Trend in Scientific Research and Development (ijtsrd), ISSN: 2456-6470, Volume-2 | Issue-2, February 2018,
Direct Link: http://www.ijtsrd.com/pharmacy/pharmacy-practice/8256/hospital-acquired-infections---a-review/riya-johnson